SHOP BY SIZES
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The fourth step in the How To Build A Shed series
The shed roof is argueably the hardest part a shed to build. This tutorial is designed to walk you through the steps of building a shed roof for a simple gable roofed shed for spans up to 10'. The images used show a roof that has a 4 in 12 pitch but the pitch can be changed to whatever is on your shed plans. By following the step by step instructions you will learn how to:
Measure the wall to wall distance to make sure it is the same as the plans. If it is different then you will need to adjust the cut lengths shown on the plans accordingly, longer distance wall to wall will require a longer rafter and a shorter wall to wall distance will require a shorter rafter length.
step 2 Design The Trusses On The Floor
Layout The Shed Wall Truss Template
Draw The Roof Pitch Line: The roof pitch line is the line that is the angle of the truss. It is drawn on the ground on the same spot that the truss will go. This will help identify and cut out the angles on the truss to chords later on.
Line A Board Up With The Marks: Put a bottom edge of a 2x4 Board on the line. Make sure it is long enough to extend out past the future eve overhang.
Transfer The Layout Lines: Transfer the rafter lines from the ground to a rafter to make a birdsmouth. The Vertical line of the birdsmouth will be the outside edge of the shed wall.
Cut: Cut the rafter birds mouth and peak shapes out of the shed rafter board.
Check The Rafter Fit: Use the first shed rafter as a template and cut a second rafter out. Then lay the two rafters on the drawing on the floor and make sure they fit together nicely and that they both sit on the line. Check that the angle cut at the peak is touching along the whole joint and that the birdsmouth cuts on the walls are sitting on the top plate without daylight showing on one end or the other.
Attach A Gusset:
Test The Shed Truss: Put the newly built shed truss up on the shed walls and check for a good fit. They don't need to be perfect but you do want the rafter foot to be bearing on the whole top plate of the wall.
step 3 Use The First Set Of Rafters As A Template And Cut Out The Remaining Shed Roof Rafters
After you are happy with the angles and cuts on the first rafter you will use it as a template to mark the cuts for the other rafter boards. Lay the template rafter on top of another board and trace all the cuts that need to be made. Remove the template and cut out the new rafter. Repeat this for all the rafters.
step 4 Create A Jig To Build The Trusses
Make a jig on the floor to hold the rafters while you nail the gussets on. This jig will insure that all your trusses are exactly the same angle.
step 5 Build The Remaining Trusses
step 6 Layout The Rafter Locations On The Top Plates
Mark the truss locations on the walls according to the roof framing plan. Layout must always be 2' on center. To achieve this you need to start on the edge and measure in 1'-11 1/4" and then 24" on center after that as shown in the drawing. The reason the end dimensions are 3/4" shorter is that the roof sheeting goes to the outside edge of the roof rafters.
step 7 Stand The Rafters On The Walls
step 8 Brace The Tops Of The Rafters
step 9 Check The Rafter Tail Length
With the trusses installed and braced you are ready to build the roof facia.
Either way you will want to make both sides of the roof the same so the shed retains a symetrical look.
Most framers will wait to cut the rafter tails until the they are installed on the roof. This means that you will not cut the tails when you originally cut out the rafters.
step 10 Install The Roof Facia
To install the shed roof facia boards you will
step 11 Cut The Siding Off At The Truss Tops
Mark down 1/2" from the tops of the trusses onto the siding and cut the siding on each of the shed ends so that the roof sheeting can sit on top of the truss.
step 12 Nail On The O.S.B. Roof Sheathing
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